AONSWArchives Office of New South Wales
AOT Archives of Office of Tasmania
BPP British Parliamentary Papers
BPP British Parliamentary Papers
CCL Commissioner of Crown Lands
CSL Colonial Secretary Letters
CSO Colonial Secretary’s Office
CT Colonial Times
HRA Historical Records of Australia
HRNSW Historical Records of New South Wales
HRV Historical Records of Victoria
HTC Hobart Town Courier
HTG Hobart Town Gazette
LA Launceston Advertiser
LA Launceston Advertiser
ML Mitchell Library – State Library of New South Wales, Sydney
QSA Queensland State Archives
SUR Lands and Surveys Office
TAHO VDL Tasmanian Archives and Heritage Office – Van Diemen’s Land Company
TAHO Tasmanian Archives and Heritage Office
VPR Victorian Public Records
VPRS Victorian Public Records Service



a. Colonial Secretary’s Office (Col Sec), Colonial Secretary In Letters (CSL))

CSL 41/9744, micro 12. Hodgson, A , Report on Aboriginal Outrage, 27 October 1841.

b. Commissioner of Crown Lands (CCL) Correspondence and Reports

CCL 4/2601 Correspondence - Rolleston to Chief Secretary, 15 August and 12 October, 1843.

CCL 4/2620 Bligh, Richard CCL Gwydir to Chief Commissioner of Crown Lands, 10 Jan 1849.


A773 Correspondence – Wallis to Macquarie, May 4, 1816.

A860 Rowland Hassall Papers, Vol.2, part 1, 1819.

A1715 Reverend Joseph Orton papers, 1825-1842.

A7078 George Augustus Robinson Papers, 1818-1924, Vol. 57.

MSS 214/21-22; 214/24, William Thomas Papers, 1834-1868, 1902.

MSS 3821 5-537C,22 A.E.Tonge, The Young’s of Umbercollie: the First white Family in South West Queensland


Maitland Circuit Court Depositions. March/April 1849


Australian Joint Copying Project (AJCP)

AJCP Reel No. 584 PRO CO 13 Correspondence - Grey to Russell, 29 May 1841.


Moreton Bay Book of Trials, 13 January 1842.


Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence (COL)

QSA COL/A26/1860/79,381

QSA COL/A26/1862/,63, 823

QSA COL/A185/1873/99

Lands and Surveys Office (SUR)

QSA SUR/A23/1864/62


Colonial Secretary’s Office (CSO)

TAHO CSO 1/316; 1/320; 1/323; 1/330; 1/331; 1/333 Correspondence and other papers relating to the Depredations of the Aborigines.

Van Diemen’s Land Company Records (TAHO VDL)

TAHO VDL 5/1, No 2 Correspondence.


VPRS Police Magistrates Correspondence: Barton to La Trobe November 24 1840; Blair to La Trobe July 31, 1845.

VPRS 19/42 No 43/330 Correspondence - G. A. Robinson to La Trobe, January 4 1842.

VPRS 19-21 Journal of Neil Black.


ms 5244 James Dredge Papers.

Memoirs of W. Moodie.


Amos, A 1823, Unpublished Diary of Adam Amos, District Constable for Great Swanport, Glamorgan Historical Society, Swansea, Tasmania.

Gunn n.d., Letter - Goondiwindi and District File, Royal Queensland Historical Society, Brisbane, Queensland.


Copland, M, 1990, “A System of Assassination: The Macintyre River Frontier 1837-1850”. BA thesis, Department of History, University of Queensland.

Dunn, M 2015, "A Valley in a Valley: Colonial Struggles over Land and Resources in the Hunter Valley, NSW 1820-1850." Ph.D. thesis, University of New South Wales,

Schneider, P 2016, Walking and Hearing Table Top Mountain: Retelling the Historical Narrative Through an Audio Walking Tour of the Summit, Major Research Project, MA-History, University of New England.

Trangmar, E.R 1956[?], The Aborigines of far Western Victoria: a short talk Victoria. Held in Hamilton Tourist Office, Hamilton, Vic.


Australian, The (1824-1848), September 23, 1826; 17 November, 1838.

Colonial Advocate & Tasmanian Monthly Review and Register (1828), April 1, 1830.

Colonial Times (1828-1857), March 20, 1829; March 27, 1829; September 3, 1830.

Colonial Times and Tasmanian Advertiser (1825-1827), January 6, 1826.

Courier, The (1861-1864), November 25, 1861; October 4, 1862; March 30, 1864.

Hobart Town Courier (1827-1839), November 24, 1827; March 22, 1828; October 18, 1828; February 27, 1829; February 28, 1829; March 7, 1829; June 13, 1829.

Hobart Town Gazette (1825-1827; 1830), September 23, 1826; May 5, 1827.

Hobart Town Gazette and Southern Reporter, The (1816-1821), August 31, 1816; March 29, 1817; November 14, 1818; March 13, 1819.

Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen's Land Advertiser (1821-1825), December 3, 1823; January 12, 1825.

Launceston Advertiser (1829-1846), February 9, 1829.

Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, The (1843-1893), June 26, 1850.

Moreton Bay Courier (1846-1861), April 6, 1850.

Port Phillip Gazette (1838-1845), August 26, 1843.

Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser, (1861-1908), April 7, 1864.

Queenslander, The (1866-1939), November 3, 1866.

Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, The (1803-1842), April 6, 1805; May 12, 1805; July 29, 1824; August 12, 1824.

Sydney Herald (1832-1841), 10 June, 1840.

Sydney Morning Herald, The (1842-1954), December 5, 1842; January 18, 1843; October 15, 1847; January 22, 1852; October 20, 1846.

Tasmanian, The (1827-1839), November 16, 1827.

Toowoomba Chronicle and Queensland Advertiser, The (1861 - 1875), December 29, 1864.


Allen, T & Queen, S 2015, 'Beyond the Map: Unpacking Critical Cartography in the Digital Humanities', Visible Language, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 78-99.

Arkley, L 2000, The hated Protector: The Story of Charles Wightman Sievewright, Protector of Aborigines 1839-42, Orbit Press, Mentone, Victoria.

Bartrop, P 2004, 'Punitive Expeditions and Massacres: Gippsland, Colorado, and the Question of Genocide', in AD Moses (ed), Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History, Berghahn Books, Oxford, pp. 194-214.

Bassett, J 1989, 'The Faithfull Massacre at the Broken River, 1838', Journal of Australian Studies vol. 13, no. 24, pp. 18-34.

Billis, RV & Kenyon, AS 1974, Pastures new : an account of the pastoral occupation of Port Phillip, Stockland Press, Melbourne.

Bladon, FM (ed) 1979, Historical Records of New South Wales, (HRNSW), facsimile edition. Lansdowne Slattery & Co., Mona Vale, NSW.

Blomfield, G. 1986: Baal Belbora the End of the Dancing, Alternative Publishing Co-operative Ltd., Sydney.

Bonwick, J 1870, The Last of the Tasmanians, Sampson Low, Son & Marston, London.

Bonwick, J 1970, Western Victoria, Its Geographical, Geological and Social Condition, Reprinted from 1858 edn, William Heinemann Australia, Melbourne.

Bottoms, T 2013, Conspiracy of Silence Queensland’s Frontier Killing Times Allen & Unwin, Sydney.

Boyce, J 2011, 1835 : the founding of Melbourne & the conquest of Australia, Black Inc, Collingwood, Vic.

Breen, S 1996, 'Human agency, historical inevitability and moral culpability: Rewriting black-white history in the wake of Native Title', Aboriginal History, vol. 20, pp. 108-132.

Breen, S 2001, Contested places : Tasmania's northern districts from ancient times to 1900, Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tas.

Breen, S 2006, in L Ryan (Ed.).

Bridges, R 1948, That Yesterday was Home, Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney.

British Parliamentary Papers 1831, Van Diemen’s Land: Correspondence between Lieutenant-Governor Arthur and His Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies, on the Subject of the Military Operations Lately Carried on against the Aboriginal Inhabitants of Van Diemen’s Land, London.

British Parliamentary Papers 1831, Van Diemen’s Land. Copies or Extracts of Correspondence between Lieutenant-Governor Arthur and His Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies, on the Subject of the Military Operations Lately Carried on against the Aboriginal Inhabitants of Van Diemen’s Land London. Vol 19, Paper 259.

British Parliamentary Papers 1839, Australian Aborigines., Return of an Address … dated 19th July 1839 for copies of Extracts from Despatches relative to the Massacre of various Aborigines in Australia , in the Year 1838, and respecting the Trial of their Murderers, London. Vol 34, Paper 526

British Parliamentary Papers 1844, Aborigines (Australian Colonies) Return of an Address…dated 5th August 1844 for Copies or Extracts from the Despatches of the Governors of the Australian Colonies, with the Reports of the Protectors of Aborigines, and any other Correspondence to illustrate the Condition of the Aboriginal Population of said Colonies, from the Date of the last Papers laid before Parliament on the subject, London. Vol. 34, Paper 627.

Broome, R 2005, Aboriginal Victorians : a history since 1800, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, N.S.W. .

Butlin, NB 1993, Economics and the Dreamtime: A Hypothetical History, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.

Campbell, AH 1987, John Batman and the Aborigines, Kibble Books, Malmsbury, Victoria.

Cannon, M (ed) 1982, The Aborigines of Port Phillip, 1835-1839, Historical Records of Victoria. Foundation series ; v. 2A, Victorian Government Printing Office, Melbourne.

Cannon, M 1990, Who killed the Koories?, William Heinemann Australia, Port Melbourne, Vic.

Chapman, P (ed) 1996-2000, Historical Records of Australia (HRA) Resumed Series III, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.

Clark, ID 1995, Scars in the Landscape: a register of massacre sites in western Victoria, 1803-1859, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS), Canberra.

Connor, J 2002, Australian Frontier Wars, 1788-1838, UNSW Press, Sydney.

Copland, M, Richards, J & Walker, A 2006, One hour more daylight : a historical overview of Aboriginal dispossession in southern and southwest Queensland, Social Justice Commission, Catholic Diocese of Toowoomba, Toowoomba, Qld.

Critchett, J 1990, A distant field of murder : western district frontiers, 1834-1848, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Vic.

Critchett, J 2003, 'Encounters in the Western District', in B Attwood & FS G. (eds), Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience, National Museum of Australia, Canberra, pp. 52-62.

Cusack, F 1973, Bendigo : a history, Heinemann, Melbourne.

Dow, G & Dow, H 1990, Landfall in Van Diemen’s Land: The Steels Quest for Greener Pastures, Footprint, Footscray, Victoria.

Dunderdale, G 1973, Book of the Bush Containing Many Truthful Sketches Of The Early Colonial Life Of Squatters, Whalers, Convicts, Diggers, And Others Who Left Their Native Land And Never Returned, Penguin Books, Ringwood, Vic. .

Elder, B 2003, Blood on the wattle : massacres and maltreatment of Aboriginal Australians since 1788, 3rd edn, New Holland, Frenchs Forest, N.S.W. .

Elder, B 2005, The A-Z of Australian facts, myths and legends, New Holland, Sydney.

Eldershaw, F 1854, Australia as it really is, in its life, scenery, & adventure : with the character, habits, and customs of its Aboriginal inhabitants, and the prospects and extent of its gold fields, Published for the author by Darton and Co., London.

Evans, R 1999, 'The Mogwi take Mi-an-jin: race relations and the Moreton Bay penal settlement, 1824-1842', Fighting words: writing about race, University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, Qld.

Evans, R 2007, A history of Queensland, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ; Port Melbourne.

Fels, MH 1982, 'Culture Contact in the County of Buckinghamshire, Van Diemen’s Land 1803-11', Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Papers and Proceedings, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 47-68.

Fels, MH 1988, Good men and true: the Aboriginal police of the Port Phillip district 1837-1853, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Vic.

Fenton, J 1884, A History of Tasmania, J. Walch & Sons, Hobart.

Garden, DS 1984, Victoria: a history, Nelson, Melbourne.

Gardner, PD 2001, Gippsland Massacres: the destruction of the Kurnai Tribes 1800-1860, 2nd edn, Elsever, Melbourne.

Gardner, PD 2015, 'Some random Notes on the Massacres 2000-2015'.

George, J 2002, 'Extracts from a Diary belonging to James George', Oatlands District Historical Society Chronicle, vol. 2, pp. 10-20.

Gunson, N (ed) 1974, Australian reminiscences & papers of L.E. Threlkeld, missionary to the Aborigines, 1824-1859, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.

Harris, J 2003, 'Hiding the bodies: the myth of the humane colonisation of Aboriginal Australia', Aboriginal History, vol. 27, pp. 79-104.

Hartwell, RM 1954, The Economic Development of Van Diemen’s Land 1820-1850, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.

Hobler, G 1992, The Diaries of Pioneer George Hobler, October 6 1800-December 13 1882, C. & H. Reproductions, Sydney.

Jones, RM 1974, 'Tasmanian Tribes', in N Tindale (ed), Aboriginal Tribes of Australia, Australian National University Press, Canberra.

Kiddle, M 1961, Men of yesterday : a social history of the western district of Victoria, 1834-1890, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.

Lee, I (ed) 1927, Rosalie Hare, The Voyage of the Caroline to Van Diemen’s Land and Batavia in 1827-28, Longmans, London.

Lennox, G 1990, 'The Van Diemen’s Land Company and the Tasmanian Aborigines: a reappraisal', Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Papers and Proceedings, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 165-208.

Lore, AD 1987, 'Tracking Down the Hunter's Aboriginal History', The Newcastle Morning Herald, September 19.

Lourandos, H 1997, Continent of Hunter-Gatherers: New Perspectives on Australian Prehistory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mackaness, G (ed) 1941, Report of a journey of two thousand two hundred miles to the tribes of the coast and eastern interior during the year 1844, Ford, Sydney.

Massola, A 1969, Journey to Aboriginal Victoria, Rigby, Adelaide.

McKay, A (ed) 1962, Journals of the Land Commissioners for Van Diemen’s Land 1826-28, University of Tasmania in Conjunction with the Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Hobart.

McKenna, M 2016, From the edge: Australia's lost histories, The Miegunyah Press an imprint of Melbourne University Publishing, Carlton, Victoria.

McLaren, J 1946 - 8th ed 1956, My crowded solitude, 8th edn, Angus and Robertson, Sydney.

McMillan, A 'Supposed Outrage by the Blacks', Sydney Herald (1831-1842), December 28, 1840.

Melville, H, [1835] 1965, in G Mackaness (ed), The History of Van Diemen’s Land from the Year 1824 to 1835, Horwtiz-Grahame, Sydney.

Milliss, R 1992, Waterloo Creek : the Australia Day massacre of 1838, George Gipps and the British conquest of New South Wales, McPhee Gribble (Penguin), Ringwood, Vic.

Mulvaney, DJ 1989, Encounters in place: outsiders and Aboriginal Australians 1606-1985, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Qld.

Nicholls, M (ed) 1977, The Diary of the Reverend Robert Knopwood 1803-1838, Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Hobart.

Pepper, P & De Araugo, T 1985, What did happen to the Aborigines of Victoria, Volume 1: The Kurnai of Gippsland Hyland House, Melbourne.

Plomley, NJB (ed) 1966, Friendly Mission: The Tasmanian Journals and Papers of George Augustus Robinson 1829-1834, Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Hobart.

Plomley, NJB (ed) 1987, Weep in Silence: A History of the Flinders Island Aboriginal Settlement, Blubber Head Press, Hobart.

Plomley, NJB (ed) 1991, Jorgen Jorgenson and the Aborigines of Van Diemen’s Land, Blubber Head Press, Hobart.

Presland, G (ed) 1977, Journals of G.A. Robinson, March 1841 - May 1841, Aboriginal Affairs Victoria, Melbourne.

Queensland Parliament 1867, Votes and Proceedings.

Rogers, TJ & Bain, S 2016, 'Genocide and frontier violence in Australia', Journal of Genocide Research, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 83-100.

Ryan, L 1996, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, 2nd edn, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, New South Wales.

Ryan, L 2008, 'Massacre in the Black War in Tasmania, 1823-1834: a case study of the Meander River region, June 1827', Journal of Genocide Research, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 479-99.

Ryan, L 2012, Tasmanian Aborigines a History since 1803, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, New South Wales.

Savill, V 1972[?], A tourist guide to the local sites and facilities of the southwestern region of Victoria and the Mount Gambier region of South Australia, Western Wonderland Regional Travel Association, Heywood, Vic.

Sayers, CE (ed) 1983, Letters from Victorian Pioneers: a series of Papers on the Early Occupation of the Colony, the Aborigines etc., addressed by Victorian pioneers to His Excellency Charles Joseph La Trobe, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor of the colony of Victoria, Curry O'Neil Reprinted from edited for the Trustees of the Public Library by Thomas Francis Bride

Schlunke, K (ed) 2005, Bluff Rock : autobiography of a massacre, Fremantle Arts Centre Press, Fremantle, W.A.

Shaw, AGL 1996, A history of the Port Phillip District : Victoria before separation, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.

Skinner, LE 1975, Police of the pastoral frontier : native police, 1849-59 University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, Qld.

Smethwick, CA 2003, in J Henwood & M Swann (eds), Early History of the Upper Murray, John Henwood, Camberwell.

Tardif, P 2003, John Bowen’s Hobart: The Beginnings of European Settlement in Tasmania, Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Hobart.

Taylor, R 2002, Unearthed: The Aboriginal Tasmanians of Kangaroo Island, Wakefield Press, Adelaide.

Turnbull, C 1967, Black War: the Extermination of the Tasmanian Aborigines, Cheshire-Landsdowne, Melbourne.

Watkins, G 1892, 'Notes on the Aborigines of Stradbroke and Moreton Islands', Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, no. 8, p. 43.

Watson, F (ed) 1914, Historical Records of Australia (HRA) Series I; Series III, Library of the Commonwealth Parliament of Australia, Sydney.

West, J [1852], The History of Tasmania, Henry Dowling, Launceston.