Timeline

The following estimates are provisional and will be adjusted as the project continues. Only sites for which there is good evidence are included. The estimates of the number of people massacred are conservative and include only those we can be reasonably sure were killed during the massacre or immediately afterwards. In some cases the actual deaths may have been many more. To understand how we have arrived at an estimated number killed in each massacre, please read the Introduction.

Australia includes at least 200 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nations, represented on the AIATSIS map of Indigenous Australia. The borders of the Australian colonies and administrative jurisdictions changed several times between 1788 and 1930. The changes had considerable impact on the way Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities were treated and in particular their experiences of frontier massacre.

When the First Fleet arrived at Sydney Cove in 1788, the British were pursuing the claim they made in 1770 to the entire eastern part of the Australian continent, then known as New Holland. The western boundary was marked by 135 degrees east of Greenwich which divided the entire continent in half. The northern and southern boundaries ranged from Cape York in the north to South Cape in the southern part of Van Diemen’s Land which was then believed to be part of the mainland. The entire region was named as New South Wales.

In 1800 Van Diemen’s Land was found to be a separate island and the British quickly established settlements in the northern and southern parts to forestall a possible French claim. In 1825, Van Diemen’s Land became a separate colony and in 1856 changed its name to Tasmania.

In 1826, the British established a settlement at King George Sound, now Albany and in 1828 took possession of the western part of the Australian continent in order prevent a possible French claim. A year later they established the Swan River Colony at present day Perth and in 1848 it became known as the Colony of Western Australia. Unlike the other Australian colonies, which achieved responsible government in the 1850s, Western Australia remained a Crown Colony until 1890 and joined the other Australian colonies in federation in 1901.

In 1828, the western boundary of New South Wales was extended to 129 degrees east and in 1835, the new Colony of South Australia was formed by excising territory from the south western boundary of New South Wales and the south eastern boundary of Western Australia. It achieved responsible government in 1856 and in 1861 gained jurisdiction over the Northern Territory which was then part of New South Wales, only to relinquish it to the Commonwealth of Australia in 1911. Thus, as of 1788 the Northern Territory was under the jurisdiction of New South Wales 1788-1860; South Australia 1861-1911 and the Australian Commonwealth from 1912.

In 1836, the area of New South Wales south of the Murray River was proclaimed the Port Phillip District. It operated as a semi -autonomous jurisdiction until 1850 when it was formally separated from New South Wales and became the Colony of Victoria.

In 1859, the area north of the McIntyre and Dumaresq rivers and including the Torres Strait islands and the region east of present day Northern Territory were excised from New South Wales to form the Colony of Queensland.

In 1911, the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) was excised from New South Wales.

NSW:New South Wales
VDL:Van Diemen's Land
PPD:Port Phillip District
VIC:Victoria
QLD:Queensland

Warning: Links to 'Sources' go to other websites and may contain images of people.

Estimated Date Colony Location Language Group Estimated Victims Killed Estimated Attackers Killed Sources
1 Sep 1794 NSW Hawkesbury (1) Bediagal 7 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Fletcher 1975: vol.1: 326; Turbet 2011: 81
7 Jun 1795 NSW Hawkesbury (2) Bediagal 7 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Fletcher 1975: 348-9; HRA, I,ii: 416; HRNSW, II: 307; Connor 2002: 38
3 May 1804 VDL Risdon Cove, River Derwent Big River [Leenowwine; Pangerninghe] 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Nicholls 1977: 51; HRA III, I: 237-8; BPP 1831:37, 51-54; Ryan, L. 2012: 47-62.
27 Apr 1805 NSW Nepean River Bediagal/Dharug 8 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) SG May 5- https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/6111 and May 12 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/6115, 1805
1 Mar 1806 NSW Twofold Bay, South Coast Thawa or Djirringany 11 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) SG April 6, 1806 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article627073
1 Nov 1815 to 30 Nov 1815 VDL Oyster Bay, East Coast Oyster Bay 17 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Nicholls 1977: 26; BPP 1831: 50; West 1852: 10.
17 Apr 1816 NSW Appin Gundungurra 14 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Wallis to Macquarie, May 4, June 4, 1816, ML A773.
1 Oct 1818 NSW Minnamurra River, South Coast Dharawal 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Depositions to the Sydney Bench, October 24, 1818; Report by Joseph Wild, district constable at Illawarra; Elder 2003: 25-6
15 Nov 1823 VDL Meredith River, Oyster Bay Oyster Bay / Little Swanport 6 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) Amos 1823: Nov 20.
31 May 1824 NSW Bathurst Plains Wiradjuri 6 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Cox et.al to Brisbane, June 3, 1824, NLA mfm N 257 Reel 6065: SRNSW CSO 4/1779; William Lawson Junior to Nelson Lawson, June 14, 1824, Lawson, Old Ironbark: 37; Connor 2002: 57-60; SG 29 July, 1824 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2183077.
1 Sep 1824 NSW Turon River Wiradjuri 45 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Gunson 1974 : 48-9, 74n.43; Christian Herald, October 14, 1854; Connor 2002: 59-61.
5 Sep 1824 to 10 Sep 1824 NSW Mudgee, Rylstone Wiradjuri 16 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) SG 16 September 1824 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/494925; Connor 2002: 61
14 Mar 1826 VDL Buxton's Property, East Coast Oyster Bay / Little Swanport 6 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/316: 840; Bonwick 1870: 117.
1 Sep 1826 NSW Hunter Valley, The Bridgman Estate, Fal Brook Wonnarua 18 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) The Australian, September 23, 1826: 3 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/4248925; NSW Governors’ Despatches ML A1197, vol.8, p.344; Dunn 2015: 212-14
15 Sep 1826 VDL Dairy Plains Meander River (3) Port Sorell [Pallittore North] 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) HTG September 23 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/679510 1826,CTTA http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page678999 1826
9 Dec 1826 VDL Bank Head Farm Oyster Bay 14 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/331:194-5; CTTA December 15, 1826 - http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2449083; HTG December 16, 1826; https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/679629 BPP 1831: 49; Bridges 1948:69; Cox 2010: 181-201.
22 Feb 1827 to 25 Feb 1827 NSW Paterson River, Hunter Valley Wonnarua 12 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) The Australian, March 3, 1827: 3 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/rendition/nla.news-page4249109.pdf; Sydney Gazette, March 22,1827: 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2187895, March 24, 1827: 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2187904. Maitland Mercury, 25 August 1877, p.10. https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/18831954
1 Mar 1827 to 31 Mar 1827 VDL Lagoon Lower Marshes near Jordan River Big River 17 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/323, 113; HTC, 15 March - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/641575, 22 March - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/641580, 1828; Plomley 2008: 537.
12 Apr 1827 VDL Elizabeth River (Mt Augustus) Eastern Midland Plain Oyster Bay 40 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) HTG May 5,1827 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/679817; CTTA May 4 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/679292, 11 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/679295, 25 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/679305, 1827; BPP 1831: 48-9; George 2002: 13; Ryan 2012: 90.
1 May 1827 to 15 May 1827 VDL Sally Peak (1) Oyster Bay 6 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Bonwick 1870: 99.
1 Jun 1827 to 30 Jun 1827 VDL Blackman River: intersection of Brumby Creek and Lake River Big River 10 (Aboriginal People) 3 (Colonisers) Tasmanian November 16, 1827 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/25173464; McKay 1962: 74.
13 Jun 1827 VDL Dairy Plains Meander River (2) Port Sorell [Pallittore North] 9 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/316, 15-37; Plomley 1966: 219; Ryan 2008: 491.
24 Jun 1827 VDL Laycock Falls (Liffey Falls) Port Sorell [Pallittore North] 30 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/316, 15-37; CTTA, July 6, 1827 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/679329; Breen 2006: Ryan 2008: 492-3; Plomley 2008: 254.
26 Jun 1827 VDL Quamby Brook Port Sorell [Pallittore North] 30 (Aboriginal People) 3 (Colonisers) CTTA July 6, 1827 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/679329; TAHO CSO 1/316: 15-45; Plomley 1966: 219; Breen 2001: 27; Ryan, 2008: 493.
30 Jul 1827 NSW Raffles Bay, NT Iwaidja 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) HRA, III, v:816-20; HRA III, vi:.777; NLA AJCP Reel M793 f278; Wilson 1968: 148; Mulvaney 1989: 69; Connor 2002: 74; McKenna 2016: 73
1 Sep 1827 to 31 Oct 1827 NSW Yarramanbah, Qurindi, Liverpool Plains Gamilaraay or Guyinbaraay 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) The Monitor, August 4, 1828: 8 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31760465; Milliss 1992: 78-82; SRNSW 4/1983: CSR 28/7772, Letters Received 1828; Dunn to McLeay, May 6, 1828; Sadlier to McLeay, September 19, 1828.
1 Dec 1827 to 31 Dec 1827 VDL The Retreat, (Cheshunt) Dairy Plains, Meander River Port Sorell [Pallittore North] 19 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Plomley 1966: 197-8, 218.
1 Dec 1827 to 31 Dec 1827 VDL Dairy Plains Meander River (1) Port Sorell [Pallittore North] 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Lennox 1990: 170.
1 Jan 1828 to 31 Dec 1828 NSW Mill Creek, 32 kms north of Stroud Worimi 11 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bennett 1964:12-13.
1 Jan 1828 to 31 Jan 1828 VDL Cape Grim, VDL Co, NW Tasmania (1) North West 13 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) TAHO VDL 5/1 No.2; Lee 1927: 41.
10 Feb 1828 VDL Cape Grim, VDL Co, Nw Tasmania (2) North West 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/333: 116-117; Plomley 1966: 175, 181; TAHO VDL 5/1:104-5.
19 Mar 1828 VDL Bullock Hunting Ground, East Tamar River North Midlands 14 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/316:729
2 Apr 1828 VDL Elizabeth River, Eastern Tiers Oyster Bay 17 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/316:137; HTC April 5, 1828 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/641590; BPP 1831: 49; Melville [1835] 1965: 71-2; Ryan 2012: 99.
1 Jul 1828 to 30 Jul 1828 VDL Eastern Tiers Oyster Bay / Big River 17 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/320: 152-4;TAHO CSO 1/330:109.
23 Oct 1828 VDL Cockatoo Valley, Hollow Tree Oyster Bay 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) The Tasmanian, October 31, 1828 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/25173660; HTC 18 October http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4220434; November 1, 1828 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/641811.
6 Dec 1828 VDL Tooms Lake, source of Macquarie River, Eastern Tiers Oyster Bay / Little Swanport 10 (Aboriginal People) 3 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/320: 22; HTC December 13, 1828 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/641858.
1 Jan 1829 to 31 Dec 1829 SRC Swan Valley/Success Hill Whadjuk Noongar 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Berryman 2002: 233; Carter 2005:78-80.
1 Jan 1829 to 31 Jan 1829 VDL St Paul’s River, East Coast Oyster Bay 9 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) LA February 9, 1829 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/8721080.
1 Jan 1829 to 31 Jan 1829 VDL Break O'Day Plains Oyster Bay 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) LA February 9 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/8721080, 1829.
18 Feb 1829 VDL West Tamar Port Sorell [Pallittore North] 7 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) CT, February 27, 1829 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page666478; HTC February 28, 1829 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/641939.
1 Mar 1829 to 5 Mar 1829 VDL Richmond, Coal River Oyster Bay 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) HTC March 7 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/641947, 1829.
28 Mar 1829 VDL Clyde and Ouse Rivers (1) Big River 9 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/316: 232, 239; CT April 10 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/666503, 1829; HTC April 18 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/641992, 1829.
1 Jun 1829 to 30 Jun 1829 VDL Pittwater Oyster Bay 10 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/316: 281,832; CSO 1/321 1829: Jun 16; HTC Jun 13, 1829 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/642053, June 20, 1829 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/642061.
1 Sep 1829 VDL East of Ben Lomond Ben Lomond 17 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Campbell 1987: 31-2; CT, September 18, 1829 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/666596; TAHO CS0 1/330.
1 Oct 1829 to 31 Oct 1829 VDL Ouse River Big River 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bonwick 1870: 66.
10 Mar 1830 VDL Clyde and Ouse Rivers (2) Big River 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/316:189
1 Apr 1830 to 8 Apr 1830 VDL Upper Clyde River Big River 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/316:189.
18 Apr 1830 VDL Whitefoord Hills, Meander River Port Sorell [Pallittore North] 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) TAHO CSO 1/316: 489.
3 May 1830 to 5 May 1830 SRC Perth Whadjuk Noongar 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Swan River Papers, HRA Series III Vol.vi:73; The Western Mail, 9 January, 1914: 38 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/44879885/3479435; Carter 2005: 67-74.
22 Aug 1830 to 27 Aug 1830 VDL Clyde River (2) Big River 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) CT, September 3 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/666800, October 15 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/666839 1830; Plomley 1966: 506
1 Jul 1831 NSW Moreton Island Guwar 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Evans 1999:65; Watkins 1892: 43
22 Dec 1832 to 31 Dec 1832 NSW Stradbroke Island, Moreton Bay Noonucal 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Cluny, 12 Jan 1833 QSA CSL micro 8; Evans 1999: 65
1 Apr 1833 to 1 Sep 1833 SRC Perth Area Killings Whadjuk Noongar 16 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Perth Gazette, 7 September 1833:142 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/641889/148
1 Jan 1834 to 31 Dec 1834 NSW Belbora, between Gloucester & Wingham Binghi 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Newcastle Herald July 25, 1964.
1 Jan 1834 to 31 Dec 1834 PPD Convincing Ground, Portland Bay Dhauwurd wurrung 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Clark ID 1995:17-22; Anderson 2006:137-147; Clark ID 2011:79-109
1 Aug 1834 to 31 Aug 1834 NSW Badu Island, Torres Strait 11 (Colonisers) 0 (Aboriginal People) McInnes 1983: 21-50; Mullins 1994:22-3; SH October 29, 1836 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12862565; http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12862560.
28 Oct 1834 SRC Pinjarra Pinjarup Noongar 15 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Perth Gazette, 1 November 1834: 382 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/641213/402; Green 1981: 84-85; Contos,1998; Harris, 2003; Green 2003: 187-198; Owen 2016: 72-75.
1 Jan 1835 to 31 Dec 1835 NSW Waterloo Plains, Namoi R. Liverpool Plains PD Gamilaraay or Nganyaywana 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Calvert 1845; Reece 1974:28-9;
1 Jan 1835 to 31 Dec 1835 NSW Upper Williams River, Barrington Tops Binghi 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Blomfield, 1981:122; Newcastle Morning Herald, July 25, 1964
1 Jan 1836 to 31 Dec 1836 NSW Dora Dora Station, Table Top Mountain Wiradjuri 12 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Smethwick 2003: 2; Schneider 2016: 29
27 May 1836 NSW Mt Dispersion, Murray River Kureinji or Dadi Dadi 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Extracts from Proceedings…Relating to Major Mitchell’s Attack on Aborigines, 1836’, SRNSWCSO 4/118; The Australian, November 8, 1836 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/4258629; Mitchell 1838 vol. II: 101-2; HRA, I, xviii: 590-1; Milliss 1992: 128-136.
1 Jun 1836 to 31 Jul 1836 NSW Barraba Gamilaraay 80 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) BPP 1839, vol.34, Paper 526; Gunson 1974: 138, 275-6.
16 Jul 1836 PPD Mt Cottrell,Werribee Wathawurrung 10 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) Cannon 1982: 41-52; Cornwall Chronicle July 30, 1836:2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article65954557; Boyce 2011: 105-9; Rogers 2016: 275-85.
1 May 1837 to 31 May 1837 SRC York Ballardong Noongar 7 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) The Swan River Guardian, ‘Blood and Innocent Blood again’, 16 Nov 1837, Perth Gazette 29 July 1837, 944. https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/23543294H.W. Bunbury, 1834-37.
1 Nov 1837 to 30 Nov 1837 NSW Gravesend Mountain, Liverpool Plains PD Gamilaraay 200 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) NSWLC V&P 1839, 19/6/1839: 25; Milliss 1992: 159
1 Nov 1837 to 30 Nov 1837 PPD Pyalong Station: Goulburn River: Mundy Massacre Taungurung 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Dredge Papers 8 Dec 1839: Bassett 1989: 26; Broome 2005: 79.
26 Jan 1838 NSW Waterloo Creek, Jews Lagoon Gamilaraay 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Gunson 1974: 276; BPP 1839: vol.34, Paper 526; HRA, I, xix, 250-6; Milliss 1992:175-80, 183-96; Ryan 2003: 33-43
12 Apr 1838 PPD Benalla: Faithfull Massacre Taungurung 8 (Colonisers) 1 (Aboriginal People) Cannon 1982: 312-334; Bride 1983: 217-9; Atkinson & Aveling 1987: 45-54; Bassett 1989: 18-34; Russell 2002: 50-1; Argus Sept 13, 1883 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article11828136.
1 May 1838 NSW Slaughterhouse Creek, Gwydir River Gamilaraay 300 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Milliss 1992: 200-3
1 Jun 1838 to 30 Jun 1838 PPD Waterloo Plains Djadjawurrung 23 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) Cannon 1982: 313, 336-40; Clark ID 1995: 85:91-2; Clark 1998a: 129-130; Australasian, 31 October 1885 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article138638800; Mt Alexander Mail, 3 November 1885 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article208477716
1 Jun 1838 to 30 Jun 1838 PPD Campaspe Plains Djadjawurrung 40 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) Clark ID 1995: 94-96; Cusack 1973: 10-11; Shaw 1996:134.
1 Jun 1838 to 31 Aug 1838 PPD Darlington Station Djadjawurrung 13 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Clark ID 1995: 89; Dredge July 23, 1839, SLV ms 5244.
10 Jun 1838 NSW Myall Creek Gamilaraay or Yugambul 28 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) HRA, I, xix: 701-14; The Australian, 17 July: 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36854124; 17 November 1838 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/4298591 and 1 December 1838 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/4298615
1 Jul 1838 to 31 Jul 1838 PPD Reservoir (1) Djadjawurrung 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Cannon 1983: 643; Clark ID 1995: 89-90
1 Aug 1838 to 31 Aug 1838 NSW Ardgowan Island, Gwydir River, Liverpool Plains PD Wiriyaraay or Gamilaraay or Yugambul 9 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) CCL Mayne to Thomson, 23-28 Feb 1839, SRNSW CSR39/2519
1 Oct 1838 to 31 Oct 1838 PPD Murdering Flat Wulluwurrung or Nundadjali 40 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Massola 1969; Cannon 1983: 627-637; Clark ID 1995: 26-8
1 Feb 1839 to 28 Feb 1839 PPD Maiden Hills Djadjawurrung 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Orton 12 Jan 1841; Cannon 1983: 643; Clark ID 1995: 89-90; 92-3.
1 Mar 1839 to 31 Mar 1839 NSW Junction of Murray and Darling Rivers (1) Tati tati 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Southern Australian, 24 April 1839: 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71685226; South Australian Gazette & Colonial Register, April 27, 1839: 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31750562
1 Jun 1839 to 30 Nov 1839 PPD Chimney Pots Djabwurrung or Nundadjali 69 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Gippsland Guardian, July 6, 1860 - http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article109903690; Gardner 2010: 1-7.
1 Oct 1839 to 31 Oct 1839 PPD Murdering Gully Djargurd Wurrung or Keeray- Woorroong or Wirngilgnad dhalinanong 35 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Kiddle 1961: 122; Charles n.d.: 6-9; Clark ID 1995: 105-118.
11 Nov 1839 NSW Junction, Darling & Murray Rivers (2) Tati tati 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Buchanan 1922-3:75
1 Dec 1839 to 31 Jan 1840 PPD Blood Hole Djadjawurrung 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Massola 1969: 88; Clark ID 1995: 97.
1 Dec 1839 to 31 Dec 1839 SA Langhorne's Ferry/Rufus River, Murray River (1) Maraura 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Moorhouse to Mundy, 12 July 1841, reproduced in Burke et al. 2016:158.
1 Jan 1840 to 28 Feb 1840 PPD Tahara Wulluwurrung 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Orton 1840-2; Robinson Papers Vol.57; Presland 1977b; Clark ID 1990a; Clark ID 1995: 25; Clark ID 1998
1 Jan 1840 to 31 Dec 1840 PPD LaTrobe Valley unknown 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Gunson 1968:6
8 Mar 1840 PPD Fighting Hills Nundadjali 41 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Journal of Neil Black 23 March 1840, VPRS 19; Orton 1840-2; Fyans 1842 and 1845, SRNSW 1846; Robertson to La Trobe 26 Sept 1853, in Sayers, 1983: Critchett 1990: 127; Clark ID 1995: 145-151.
1 Apr 1840 PPD Fighting Waterholes Wulluwurrung or Nundadjali 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Fyans 1842 and 1845, NSW Government Despatches, vol.51 MLA ; Memoirs of W. Moodie, typescript, copy in La Trobe Library, ms 9157; Massola 1969; Clark 1995:152-5.
20 May 1840 to 31 May 1840 NSW Kunderang Brook Upper Macleay River Valley Dhanggati 24 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) SH June 10, 1840 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/1523969; Henderson 1851, vol.2: 5: Frost 1992:34.
1 Jun 1840 to 30 Jun 1840 PPD Mustons Djabwurrung or Gai wurrung 8 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Clark ID 1995: 66; Clark ID 1998b: 284; Critchett 2003: 56-7.
1 Jun 1840 to 30 Jun 1840 SA Langhornes Ferry/Rufus River, Murray River (2) Erawirung 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Moorhouse to Mundy, 12 July 1841, reproduced in Burke et.al. 2016: 158.
9 Jun 1840 PPD Campaspe (2) Djadjawurrung or Ngurai-illamwurrung 7 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Clark ID 1995: 98.
11 Jun 1840 PPD Mount Rouse Djab wurrung or Gai wurrung 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) BPP 1844: 281; Brough Smyth 1878: 40; Billis & Kenyon 1974: 148; Cannon 1982: xxi; Clark ID 1998b: 161; Bride 1983: 294; Clark ID 1995: 62-3, 156-8.
1 Jul 1840 to 14 Jul 1840 SA Maria massacre, Coorong Milmenrua 26 (Colonisers) 6 (Aboriginal People) SA Register, 1 August http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27441699; 15 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27441755; Sept 12 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27441838, 19 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27441856, 1840; Clyne, 1981; Hamann 1973; Foster, et al 2001:13-28.
12 Aug 1840 to 20 Aug 1840 PPD Victoria Valley Djabwurrung 23 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Clark ID 1995: 156-8; Orton 12 January 1841: 1840-2; Garden 1984: 17; VPRS 21.
1 Oct 1840 to 31 Oct 1840 PPD Boney Point, Gippsland Gunnai or Tatungalung or Braiakaulung 15 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) SH December 28, 1840 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/3923508; Bride 1983: 210; Pepper and de Araugo 1985: 18; Gardner 2001: 44-9.
1 Nov 1840 to 30 Nov 1840 PPD Connell's Ford Nundadjali or Wulluwwurrung 15 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) G.A. Robinson to La Trobe, 4 Jan 1842, VPRS 19/42 No 43/330; Clark 1995: 28-29, 33; Clark 1998b: 249; Trangmar 1956: np
1 Nov 1840 to 30 Nov 1840 PPD Burrumbeep Pirtpirtwurrung 7 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Clark ID 1995: 73, 77; Clark ID 1998b: 316-336
1 Jan 1841 to 31 Dec 1841 PPD Butchers Creek Tatungalung 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Gardner 2001: 49-52; Gardner 2010: 3, 9.
1 Jan 1841 to 31 Dec 1841 NSW Butcher's Creek, Barwon River Pooncarie/Parkantyi 30 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) Dargin 1976:51-2; Thomas 2012:382-6
1 Jan 1841 to 31 Dec 1841 NSW Black Camp Creek, (Spring Gully Creek), Williams River Worimi 20 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) Ford 1995:128
27 Feb 1841 to 10 Mar 1841 SRC Wonnerup 'Minninup' Wardandi Noongar 7 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Perth Gazette, 13 March 1841: 3 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/642768; Kimberly 1897: 116; White, 2017: 2-13.
1 Apr 1841 to 30 Apr 1841 NSW Orara River, near Seelands Ngarabal? 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) SRNSW CSIL CCL 1841 4/2525; Kent 2006.
1 May 1841 to 31 May 1841 NSW Darkie Point, Bellingen River, New England Pastoral District Baanbay 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Eldershaw 1851: 60-65; Blomfield 1981: 85-91; Elder 2005: 105-117
1 May 1841 to 31 May 1841 SA Hornet's Nest, 68 kms east of Lake Bonney, Murray River Ngintait 8 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Burke et al 2016:135-179
1 Jun 1841 to 30 Jun 1841 PPD Mount Sturgeon Station Djabwurrung 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Clark ID 1995: 72.
1 Jun 1841 to 25 Jul 1841 PPD Woodlands Knenknenwurrung 7 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Critchett 1990: 248; Shaw 1996: 130,134.
23 Aug 1841 PPD Rufus River Yuyu or Ngintait or Marawara 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Grey to Russell, 29 May 1841, with enclosures CO 13/ AJCP 584.
27 Aug 1841 SA Rufus River, Lake Victoria Maraura 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Grey to Russell, May 29, 1841, NSW Governors’ Despatches, ML A1197, vol.16.: Burke et al. 2016:152-3
1 Oct 1841 to 31 Oct 1841 NSW Grantham, Moreton Bay Pastoral District Yugara or Giabal 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Evans 2007: 53; A. Hodgson, Report on Aboriginal Outrage, October 27, 1841, SRNSW Col.Sec. 41/9744, CSL micro 12; Moreton Bay Book of Trials, January 13, 1842, OML.
1 Oct 1841 to 31 Oct 1841 NSW Bogan River beyond Mt Harris Ngiyampaa 12 (Aboriginal People) 3 (Colonisers) SMH August 24, 1842 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/3858885; Mitchell 1848: 30; Reece 1974:51; Muir 2014: 39
1 Dec 1841 to 28 Feb 1842 PPD King River, above Oxley Plains(Wangaratta) 200 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Sayers, 1969: 217-222; Argus, September 13 1883: 9 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article11828136
1 Feb 1842 to 28 Feb 1842 PPD Tarrone (1) Koornkopanoot or Bi:gwurrung 6 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Clark ID 1995: 34-5
1 Feb 1842 to 28 Feb 1842 NSW Kilcoy Mass poisoning, near Marburg Yugara or Garumngar 60 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Lang 1847: 279; Qld Parlt Legislative Assembly: 1861:19 Select Ctee in to the Native Police; Queenslander, May 21, 1892: 987, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article19824074; SMH 5 December 1842 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12426931.
24 Feb 1842 PPD Lubra Creek, Caramut Station Gai wurrung or Djabwurrung 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) BPP 1844: 234; Thomas Papers, ML Item 21; Robinson Papers, vol.57, p.46, ms ML A 7078; Critchett 1990: 108, 119, 250; Clark ID 1995: 35-42.
1 May 1842 to 15 May 1842 SA Pillaworta Station, Arno Bay, Eyre Peninsula Battara 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Foster et al 2001:64
7 Aug 1842 to 18 Aug 1842 PPD Eumerella Tatungalung 6 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) BPP 1844: 234; Critchett 1990: 108, 250.
11 Sep 1842 NSW Deepwater (1), New England Pastoral District Guyambal or Ngarabul or Marbal 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Irby 1908: 60-63
1 Oct 1842 to 31 Oct 1842 PPD Tarrone (2) Bi:gwurrung or Koornkopanoot 24 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Clark ID 1995:43-5
1 Oct 1842 to 31 Dec 1842 NSW Yandilla and Tummaville, Darling Downs Pastoral District Bigambul? 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) French 1989: 102; Russell 1888: 238-9, 348
1 Dec 1842 to 31 Dec 1842 PPD Hollands Landing Tatungalung 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Gardner 2016; Dunderdale 1973
1 Jan 1843 to 31 Dec 1843 NSW Goanna Headland, Evans Head Bundjalung 100 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Medcalf 1993:5-7
12 Jan 1843 to 31 Dec 1843 NSW Sheep Station Bluff Upper McLeay River Dhanggati 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) SMH June 20, 1843 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/1520441; Blomfield 1981: 40-41
1 Feb 1843 PPD Barmah Lake Barababaraba or Jabulajabula or Yorta Yorta 26 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Cannon 1990: 139-140; Clark 1998d: 2
1 Jul 1843 to 31 Jul 1843 PPD Warrigal Creek Waterhole Brataualung 75 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Gardner 2001: 47-61; Pepper and de Araugo 1985:24; Cannon 1990:171; Shaw 1996: 133; Bartrop 2004: 99-205.
1 Jul 1843 to 31 Jul 1843 PPD Warrigal Creek Mouth Brataualung 25 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Gardner 2001: 47-61; Pepper and de Araugo 1985:24; Cannon 1990: 171; Shaw 1996:133; Bartrop 2004: 99-206.
15 Jul 1843 to 31 Jul 1843 PPD Freshwater Creek, Gippsland Brataualung 25 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Gardner 2001: 47-61; Pepper and de Araugo 1985: 24; Cannon 1990: 171; Shaw 1996: 133; Bartrop 2004: 99-207.
15 Jul 1843 to 31 Jul 1843 PPD Gammon Creek, Gippsland Brataualung 25 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Gardner 2001: 47-61; Pepper and de Araugo 1985: 24; Cannon 1990: 171; Shaw 1996: 133: Bartrop 2004: 99-208.
27 Jul 1843 NSW Mt Haldon, Darling Downs Pastoral District Yugara? 12 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) French 1989:104; Rolleston to Col Sec, August 15, October 12, 1843, CCL Correspondence 1843, SRNSW, 4/2601
6 Aug 1843 PPD Wannon River Djabwurrung or Nundadjali 17 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Port Phillip Gazette August 26, 1843 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/23203900; Thomas Papers, report 1 September – 1 December 1843; Clark 1995: 160-1
1 Sep 1843 to 10 Sep 1843 PPD Fitzroy River (1) Dhauwurd wurrung 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Shaw 1996: 132; Critchett 1990: 252.
1 Sep 1843 to 30 Sep 1843 PPD Crawford River Dhauwurd wurrung or Wulluwurrung 9 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Critchett 1990: 252; Clark 1995: 46-7; Shaw 1996: 132
1 Sep 1843 to 31 Oct 1843 NSW Rosewood Scrub, Moreton Bay Pastoral District Yugara? 12 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) SMH October 12, 1843: 3 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/1520833; Copland et al. 2006: 25-6
1 Nov 1843 to 30 Nov 1843 PPD Clunie Nundadjali or Mardidjali 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Critchett 1990: 253; Shaw 1996: 132.
1 Nov 1843 to 1 Jun 1844 PPD Tambo Crossing Tatungalung or Brabralung 70 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Mackaness 1941: 13; Gardner 1995: 40-51; Clark 1998d: 102.
1 Jan 1844 to 31 Dec 1847 NSW Crampton’s Corner, Maranoa Pastoral District Gawambaraay or Bigambul? 15 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Copland 1990: 17-19; Gunn nd: Letter ‘Goondiwindi and District file’ Royal Queensland Historical Society; Browne 1922: 22-4
10 Jul 1844 to 20 Jul 1844 SA Mt Bryan, near Burra 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Pope 1989:113-119: Southern Australian, 3 December 1844.
17 Oct 1844 NSW Bluff Rock New England Pastoral District Marbal or Ngarbal 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Irby 1908: 77, 90; Schlunke 2005: 59-60; Walker, 1966: 30
1 Jan 1845 to 31 Dec 1845 NSW Darkey Flat Geynyan? 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Hall c1925: 103-4; French 1989: 99
1 Jan 1845 to 31 Dec 1845 NSW Upper Macleay River Dhanggati 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) McMaugh, H.A. nd: 6; Blomfield, 1981: 36-8
1 Mar 1845 NSW Deepwater (2), New England Pastoral District Guyambal or Ngarabul or Marbal 16 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Walker 1966: 30; Reece 1974: 187
1 Jul 1845 to 31 Jul 1845 PPD Mt Arapiles Mardidjali 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Critchett 1990: 254.
2 Jul 1845 PPD Naracoorte Caves Buandig 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Blair to La Trobe, July 31 1845, VPRS in file 45/1721; 19, 45/1391; Critchett 1990: 254; Cannon 1990: 154-5.
1 Sep 1845 to 30 Sep 1845 NSW Mount Foster, Wellington Pastoral District 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) HRA, I, xxv: 8-10
1 Jan 1846 to 31 Dec 1846 NSW Junction of Murray and Murrumbidgee Rivers Dadi Dadi or Weki Weki 70 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Collins 2002:48-9
1 Feb 1846 PPD Loddon Junction Wemba Wemba 6 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Cannon 1990: 221-2
1 Aug 1846 to 31 Aug 1846 NSW Bogan River, Wellington Pastoral District unknown 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) HRA, I, xxv:63
1 Aug 1846 to 2 Aug 1846 PPD Aire River Estuary, Cape Otway Gadubanud 8 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Geelong Advertiser and Squatter's Advocate, 8,22 and 29 August 1846; Cannon 1190:147; Niewojt 2010:193-213;
1 Oct 1846 NSW Dourallie Creek, Upper Macleay River Valley Dhanggati 60 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) SMH October 20, 1846 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/1516179; Blomfield 1981: 46-7; McLaren 1946: 110
16 Dec 1846 PPD Snowy River Tatungalung or Krauatungulung 15 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Fels 1988: 188-192; Shaw 1996: 133
10 Apr 1847 to 20 Apr 1847 NSW Whiteside Station, Moreton Bay Pastoral District Buyibara or Yugarabul 50 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) MBC 24 Apr 1847 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3716282; The Australian 13 Apr 1847 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/4262495
1 Jul 1847 to 31 Jul 1847 PPD Mt Eccles Dhauwurd wurrung 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Clark ID 1995: 82; Clark ID 2000: 172.
1 Jul 1847 to 31 Jul 1847 PPD Mt Napier Wulluwurrung or Djabwurrung or Gai wurrung 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bonwick 1970: 70-1; Critchett 1990: 125; Clark ID 1995: 82.
12 Sep 1847 to 30 Sep 1847 NSW Boonall Station, MacIntyre River region Bigambul or Gawambaraay 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bligh, CCL, Gwydir to C C C L, 10 Jan 1849; SRNSW, 2/7634; SMH, October 15, 1847 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/12901587/1515260; Watts 1901: 20; Webb 1922: 7-12; Milliss 1980: 39-42; Tonge nd: 22-3; Copland 1990: 52-4.
1 Oct 1847 to 31 Oct 1847 NSW Callandoon Station MacIntyre River Gungabula 12 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Tonge, n.d. 22-4
29 Nov 1847 NSW Kangaroo Creek, Clarence Pastoral District Gumbaynggnir 23 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) HRA I, xxvi: 392, 395; Lydon 1996: 151-175
1 Jan 1848 to 31 Dec 1848 NSW Warroo Massacre, Maranoa Pastoral District Bigambul from north of the Macintyre 100 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Collins 2002: 20-22; Milliss 1980: 71, 201; MacPherson 1879
1 Jan 1848 to 31 Dec 1848 NSW Fitzgerald’s Burgurrah Station Maranoa Pastoral District Mandandanji or Bigambul or Wirray Wirray or Kogai 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Collins 2002: 20; Milliss 1980: 70; MacPherson 1879:13
1 Jun 1848 to 30 Jun 1848 PPD Beveridge Island Wemba Wemba or Wadi Wadi 7 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Cannon 1990: 230-231; Clark ID 1995: 183
30 Jun 1848 NSW Umbercollie Station, MacIntyre River Bigambul 12 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Maitland Circuit Court Depositions March/April 1849; Tonge, n.d.: 25; Copland et al. 2006: 42;
1 Oct 1848 to 31 Oct 1848 NSW Muckadilla Creek Maranoa Pastoral District Mandandanji 6 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) MacPherson 1879: 14; Collins 2002: 279
1 Nov 1848 to 30 Nov 1848 SA Avenue Range station, near Guichen Bay Wattatonga 9 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Foster et al 2001:78-80
23 Apr 1849 NSW Yamboucal Station, Maranoa Pastoral District Mandandanji 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Collins 2002: 36-7.
1 May 1849 to 31 May 1849 NSW Carbucky Station Maranoa Pastoral District Wiriyaraay or Gawambaraay 100 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Skinner 1975: 29-31; NSWLC V&P 1858 vol.2:880; Copland 1990: 111; Collins 2002: 63
1 May 1849 to 31 May 1849 NSW Severn (Dumaresq) River, Maranoa PD Marbal or Guyambul 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Copland 1990: 110; Watts 1901: 20; Skinner 1975: 30-31
1 May 1849 SA Yeelanna, Eyre Peninsula 8 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Foster et al 2001: 83
27 May 1849 SA Waterloo Bay, Elliston, Eyre Peninsula Wirangu 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Foster et.al. 2001: 44-73; Burgoyne 2000: 114; Gage, 2017
1 Jun 1849 to 31 Jul 1849 NSW ‘The Cedars’, Burnett River Taribelang 20 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) Laurie 1958:160; Lack 1967, np
20 Jul 1849 to 31 Jul 1849 NSW Talavera Station, Maranoa Pastoral District Mandandanji or Bigambul or Wirray Wirray or Kogai 50 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Milliss 1980:42; Collins 2002: 20, 42-3;
1 Jan 1850 to 31 Dec 1850 PPD The Slaughterhouse Tatungalung or Brabralung 15 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Gardner 2001: 76-82, 84-5; Broome 2005: 81.
1 Jan 1850 to 31 Dec 1850 PPD Milly, Brodribb River Krauatungulung 15 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Pepper and De Araugo 1985: 99-101; Gardner 2001: 82-5; Broome 2005: 81.
1 Jan 1850 to 12 Jan 1855 VDL Murderers Flat Dhauwurd wurrung 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Savill 1972[?]; Donker 1985: 18; Cark ID 1995: 52.
4 Mar 1850 NSW Yuleba Creek, Maranoa PD Mandandanji or Barunggam 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) MBC, April 6, 1850 - http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3712394; MMHRGA, June 26 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/126527, 1850; Collins 2002: 92-101; Copland et al. 2006: 62
1 Oct 1850 to 31 Oct 1850 NSW Ukabulla Station (1), Maranoa PD Mandandanji or Barunggam 13 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Collins 2002: 203
24 Dec 1851 to 3 Jan 1852 NSW Fraser Island [Butchulla] or a collection of clans that had sought refuge on the island 100 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Lauer 1977; SMH, January 22, 1852 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/1509723.
1 Mar 1852 to 31 Mar 1852 SA Brachyna Gorge Flinders Ranges Yura - Adnyamathanha 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Foster et al 2001: 95-105.
5 May 1852 to 8 May 1852 NSW Yamboucal Maranoa Pastoral District Mandandanji 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Collins 2002: 164-179
20 Sep 1852 to 30 Sep 1852 NSW Moonie Station, Maranoa Pastoral District Bigambul (Balonne Aborigines) 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Collins 2002: 198-9
1 Nov 1852 to 30 Nov 1852 NSW Ukabulla Station (2), Maranoa PD Mandandanji? and Yiman people from the Dawson River 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Collins 2002: 203-5
31 Dec 1853 to 1 Jan 1854 NSW Angel's Beach, East Ballina, Richmond PD Bundjalung 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Ainsworth 1987: 45-6
3 Jun 1854 to 11 Aug 1854 SRC Bootanell Swamp/Springs Greenough killings Naaguja, Nanda 15 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Pashley 2002; 53–56.
1 Nov 1854 to 30 Nov 1854 VDL Apsley, Western Wimmera Jandwadjali 18 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) James Dixon to S. Wilson 5 Dec 1854,
1 Nov 1854 NSW Maryborough, Burnett PD Gubbi Gubbi? or Butchulla? 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bottoms 2013: 86.
26 Dec 1855 NSW Mt Larcom Station Leichhardt Pastoral District Gayiri 6 (Colonisers) 0 (Aboriginal People) CCL Wiseman to CCCL 5 Jan 1856 SRNSW; Mc Donald 1981: 184-5.
1 Jan 1856 to 31 Dec 1856 NSW Rain forest, Towel Creek, Clarence PD Dhanggati 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Blomfield 1981: 45-6
27 Oct 1857 NSW Hornet Bank Station, Upper Burnett Pastoral District Gungabula or Yiman 11 (Colonisers) 0 (Aboriginal People) Age, November 20,1857 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/18215858; The Courier http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4602408; Reid 1980-1: 62-82; Reid 1981.
1 Nov 1857 to 30 Nov 1857 NSW Hornet Bank aftermath Yiman 80 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) George Lang to GS Lang, 31/03/1858, ML M-A63; Richards 2008:23
15 Apr 1858 NSW Whiteside Station, Moreton Bay PD Buyibara or Yugarabul 6 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Wickham to Col Sec, April 21, 1858, 1/no.58/1492, QSA, Col.Sec: Letters received re Moreton Bay 1858, A2/39; MBC, April 24, 1858 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/543482; Connors 2015: 83
1 Jan 1859 to 31 Dec 1859 VDL Lake Bolac Gai wurrung or Djabwurrung 11 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Clark ID 1995: 83.
1 Jan 1859 to 24 Feb 1859 NSW Brewarinna Fish Traps, Barwon River (1) Pooncarie/Parkantyi 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Dargin 1976:54-5: Maryborough Chronicle: Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser, May 9, 1876, p.4 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article148509158
1 Nov 1859 to 30 Nov 1859 QLD Fitzroy River (2) Karunbara or Rakiwara or Bayali 8 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) QSA COL/A2/1860/79.
1 Dec 1859 to 31 Dec 1859 QLD The 'Sapphire' massacre, Torres Strait Gudang? 18 (Colonisers) 0 (Aboriginal People) MBC March 27, 1860, p.2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3719258; Mullins 1995:22: Bottoms 2013:126.
1 Mar 1860 to 31 Mar 1860 QLD Yuleba Creek. Bendemere Station Waka Waka? 15 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) QSA COL/A3/1860/381; Collins 2002:213
6 Nov 1860 QLD Fitzroy River, Rockhampton Karunbara or Rakiwara or Bayali 8 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) QSA COL /A2/1860.79
1 Jan 1861 to 31 Dec 1861 NSW Brewarinna Fish Traps, Barwon River (2) Pooncarie/Parkantyi 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Dargin 1976: 57
1 Jan 1861 to 31 Jan 1861 QLD Hardie's Station massacre, Dugandan Scrub 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) QP V&PLA 1861; Bottoms 2013:23-4; Rosser 1990:59;
1 Jan 1861 to 31 Dec 1861 QLD Manumbar Station, Burnett River region Waka Waka 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) QPV&PLA 1861; Bottoms 2013:6, 51
17 Oct 1861 QLD Cullin la Ringo Gayiri 19 (Colonisers) 0 (Aboriginal People) SMH December 10 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/1484046, and 11 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/1484054, and 12 -http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page1484062 1861; Reid 1980-1:62-82; Perrin 1998: 84-104.
19 Oct 1861 QLD Upper Maranoa Gungabula 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Collins 2002:213.
25 Oct 1861 QLD Nogoa River Gayiri 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Reid 1980-1:62-82; Bowen to Newcastle, 16 Dec.1861, QSAGov/23
26 Nov 1861 QLD Expedition Range Mandalgu 60 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) QSA COL/A26/1862/823; SMH December 11, 1861 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/1484054
10 Dec 1861 QLD Dawson River Mandalgu 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) QSA COL/A26/1862/823
1 Jan 1862 to 31 Dec 1862 QLD Planet Creek massacre, Albinia Downs station, 100 kms south east of Springsure Gayiri 70 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bottoms 2013:49
1 Feb 1862 to 30 Apr 1862 QLD Murdering Creek, Lake Weyba, Sunshine Coast Gubbi Gubbi 25 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Gibbons 2014:142-7
1 Aug 1862 to 31 Aug 1862 QLD Caboolture River Buyibara 7 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Courier October 4, 1862 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/47987
1 Sep 1862 to 30 Sep 1862 QLD Pigeon Creek station, tributary of the Warrego River 27 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Chambers 1988: 45-60
30 Oct 1863 QLD Woolgar River Ngawun 12 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Walker, 1863
1 Jan 1865 to 31 Dec 1865 QLD Thouringowa Waterhole, Bulloo River, Bullawarra, Thargomindah Kullilla 300 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Bottoms 2013:63-4; McKellar 1984: 57
4 Apr 1865 to 6 Apr 1865 WA La Grange Yawru, Karajarri 15 (Aboriginal People) 3 (Colonisers) Scates 1989: 21-31; Forrest 1996:15-16. Australian News for Home Readers, 25 August 1865:1 & 9.
21 Jun 1866 QLD Glenmore Downs Darumbal 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) QVP 1867
1 Oct 1866 to 31 Oct 1866 QLD Belyando River 9 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Queenslander, November 3, 1866 - https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/2458734
1 Jan 1867 to 31 Dec 1867 QLD Morinish, near Rockhampton 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Richards 2008:48.
1 Jan 1867 to 31 Dec 1867 QLD Turtle Head Island, 10 kms south of Somerset, Cape York Yadhaigana 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Aboriginal People) Sharp 1992:41; Bottoms 2013: 128.
1 Apr 1868 to 31 May 1868 QLD Burketown 28 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Brisbane Courier, 9 June 1868:3; Ashwin 2002: 158; Roberts 2005:12
1 Apr 1868 to 31 May 1868 QLD Norman River, Gulf Country 31 (Aboriginal People) (Colonisers) Brisbane Courier, 9 June 1868:3: Roberts 2005:12.
1 May 1868 to 15 May 1868 WA Flying Foam Murajuga, Burrup Peninsula. Jaburara (or Yaburrara, Yapurarra) 60 (Aboriginal People) 3 (Colonisers) The Inquirer and Commercial News, 1 April 1868; 3, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/6579813; Gara, 'The Flying foam Massacre: Comprehensive summary Of Flying Foam Articles Unpublished: passim; Dyson, 2002; Owen, 2016: 135, 144, 147.
1 Jun 1869 to 30 Jun 1869 QLD Torres Strait - Pabaju Albany Island Kawalgaw Ya 10 (Colonisers) 0 (Aboriginal People) Bottoms 2013:127-8; Sharp 1992:38
1 Jun 1869 to 30 Jun 1869 QLD The 'Sperwer' massacre, Prince of Wales Is.Torres Strait 17 (Colonisers) 0 (Aboriginal People) SMH December 3, 1869: 5 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13196353; Inquirer and Commercial News, (Perth WA), January 5, 1870: 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66033796.
6 Jul 1869 to 31 Jul 1869 WA Minderoo, Thalanyji 20 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Sholl to Colonial Secretary 12 June 1869, CSR 647-66 SRWA; Forrest 1996; Gifford 2018:89-94; The Sunday Times, 20 October 1918: 8 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/57996780
1 Jan 1870 to 31 Dec 1870 NSW Hospital Creek, Brewarinna Pooncarie/Parkantyi 400 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Dargin 1976:59
20 Jan 1870 QLD Murray River Djira 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) QSA COL/A185/1873/(993) 99
1 Jan 1872 to 31 Dec 1872 QLD Blencoe Falls, Kirrama, Valley of Lagoons Station 11 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Brisbane Courier, 10 August 1872 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1293153; Bottoms 2013:137
1 Jan 1872 to 31 Dec 1872 QLD Wombunderry Waterhole, Cooper Creek Kungkari 100 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bottoms 2013:66-7; Durack 2008:139
1 Mar 1872 to 10 Mar 1872 QLD The 'Maria' massacre, Mission Beach Djurun 14 (Colonisers) 0 (Aboriginal People) Forster 1872:13-14; NSW V&P 1872
12 Mar 1872 to 31 Mar 1872 QLD Coast opposite Dunk Is. Djurun 45 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bottoms 2013:134-6;
15 Mar 1872 to 31 Mar 1872 QLD Tam O'Shanter Point, Mission Beach Djurun 43 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bottoms 2013:134-6;
1 Sep 1872 to 30 Sep 1872 SA Calico Creek Unclear 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Brisbane Courier, October 27 1874: 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1390427; Dymock 1991: 10-11; Roberts 2009; Morrison www.australianfrontierconflicts.com.au
5 Nov 1873 QLD Battle Camp, Normanby River Gugu-Warra 80 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Telegraph (Brisbane) January 22,1874 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article169519491; Queenslander, June 19, 1880 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article20333682; Jack,Vol.2 1922:421-2; Shay 2012; Bottoms 2013:117-19
22 Feb 1874 to 10 Apr 1874 SA Barrow Creek Kaititja 50 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) BCHAR 1995; South Australian Register, June 25 1874 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article39819933; The Stringer http://thestringer.com.au/the-killing-times-2214#.Wt6FTMiFPIV; Nettelbeck and Foster 2007: 6-7; Centralian Advocate, September 5, 2017 https://www.territorystories.nt.gov.au/jspui/bitstream/10070/272302/14/Centralian%20Advocate_20170905_page14_Centralian_News_14.PDF; Bell 1983:53; Wilson 2000: 270-71; Reid 1990: 62-65; Mulvaney 2003:44-51; Hartwig 1965; 265-276; Kimber 1991, p6.
1 Jan 1875 to 31 Dec 1875 QLD Thundapurty Waterhole near Durrie, SW Queensland Karuwali 42 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Watson 1998:98: Bottoms 2013:71.
1 Jan 1875 to 31 Dec 1875 SA Tempe Downs Matuntara & Irbmangkara 80 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Aboriginal People) Nettelbeck & Foster 2007: 8.
19 Jul 1875 SA Mt McMinn, Northern Territory (1) Mangarrayi 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) NTTG, 18 September 1875:2; Roberts 2005: 115-119.
23 Jul 1875 SA Mt McMinn, Northern Territory (2) Mangarrayi 40 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) Reid, 1990: xi, 66-67; NTTG, July 17, 1875: 1http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144292; August 14, 1875: 1 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144352; NTTG,September 18,1875, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144448 1875: 2; December 4 1875: 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144612; December 25, 1875: 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144666; Wilson, 2008: 221-222; Roberts, 1999; Roper River Police Station Heritage Assessment Report, 2015: 9-11; Roper Bar Land Claim Report, 1982: 3; Austin 1992, HSNT: 15-16.
5 Aug 1875 to 15 Aug 1875 SA Crescent Lagoon, Northern Territory Mangarrayi 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) NTTG,September 18,1875, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144448 1875, p 2; December 4 1875, p 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144612; December 25, 1875, p 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144666; Wilson, 2008, pp 221-222; Roper River Police Station Heritage Assessment Report, 2015:9-11; Roper Bar Land Claim Report, 1982: 3; Austin 1992 HSNT:15-16; Roberts 2005: 116-122.
8 Aug 1875 to 9 Aug 1875 SA Blue Mud Bay - Arnhem Land Yolngu, Wubuy 40 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) NTTG October 30 1875 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144523; Reid 1990: 69; Macknight 1981.
18 Aug 1875 to 20 Aug 1875 SA Harris Lagoon, Northern Territory Mangarrayi 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) NTTG,September 18,1875, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144448 1875, p 2; December 4 1875, p 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144612; December 25, 1875, p 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144666; Wilson, 2008, pp 221-222; Roberts,2005: 115-124; 1999; Roper River Police Station Heritage Assessment Report 2015: 9-11; Roper Bar Land Claim Report, 1982:3; Austin 1992 HSNT:15-16.
29 Aug 1875 SA Calder's Range, Northern Territory Mangarrayi 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) NTTG,September 18,1875, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144448 1875, p 2; December 4 1875, p 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144612; December 25, 1875, p 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144666; Wilson, 2008, pp 221-222; Roberts 2009: 115-124; Roper River Police Station Heritage Assessment Report 2015: 9-11; Roper Bar Land Claim Report 1982:3; Austin 1992 HSNT: 15-16.
2 Sep 1875 SA Mole Hill Mangarrayi 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) NTTG,September 18,1875, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144448 1875, p 2; December 4 1875, p 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144612; December 25, 1875, p 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3144666; Wilson, 2008, pp 221-222; Roberts, 1999; Roper River Police Station Heritage Assessment Report, 2015, pp 9-11; Roper Bar Land Claim Report, 1982, p 3; Austin 1992 HSNT, p15-16.
1 Jan 1878 to 31 Jan 1878 SA The Shackle, Granite Crossing 17 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) SHAR 1994; Roberts 2009; Reid 1990: 70; Morrison www.australianfrontierconflicts.com.au; NTTG, January 19 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3146552, 26 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3146569, February 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3146587, 9 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3146598, 23 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3146639, March 9 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3146690; SA Register, 28, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article40780933; 30, January, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article40791443 1878. Kelsey 1975: 64-65; Austin 1992: 16.
1 Jan 1879 to 31 Dec 1879 QLD Indian Head, North Shore, Cooktown Guugu Yimithirr 28 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bottoms 2013:121-2
1 Jan 1879 to 31 Jan 1879 QLD Selwyn Ranges Kalkadoons 100 (Aboriginal People) 4 (Colonisers) Armstrong 1981:127-8; Bottoms 2013: 162-3; Davidson et.al, 2004:16.
1 Jan 1880 to 31 Dec 1899 WA Panton River - East Kimberley Worla, Kitja 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Ross and Bray, 1989: 9.
1 Jan 1880 to 31 Dec 1880 QLD Rifle Creek, Mt Carbine Djabugay 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bottoms 2013:151
1 Oct 1880 to 30 Nov 1880 WA Ravensthorpe (Conconurup/Kukenarup/Carracarrup) Minang Noongar 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Brockway 1998:70; Landgrafft https://www.abc.net.au/news/rural/2015-05-22/kukenarup-memorial-opened-in-ravensthorpe/6490332; Western Mail, 17 October 1935:8 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/38944566
1 Jan 1884 to 31 Dec 1884 QLD Allumbah, (Yungaburra) Skull Pocket, Mulgrave River Yidinydi 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bottoms 2013:147-8
7 Aug 1884 to 7 Sep 1884 SA Anna's Reservoir Anmatjere 15 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Traynor 2016; 120-121; Kimber http://www.alicespringsnews.com.au/1032.html; Nettlebeck & Foster 2007: 16; Wilson 2000: 272; Morrison www.australianfrontierconflicts.com.au; Adelaide Observer, 20 Sept 1884http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160101265; NTTG, 25 Oct 1884 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3156621; Perkins C 1975: 19.
1 Sep 1884 to 30 Sep 1884 QLD Battle Mountain, Cloncurry Kalkadoons 20 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Bottoms 2013: 164-6.
2 Sep 1884 SA Daly River and Mary River Woolwonga 20 (Colonisers) 4 (Aboriginal People) Nettelbeck 2004: 19; Wilson 2000: 271; Morrison www.australianfrontierconflicts.com.au; Evening Journal , June 4 1885 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article198397078; SA Register, June 11 1885 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article44534459; Roberts 2009; North Australian, November 27 1885 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47995004; Markus 1974: 12-34; 'Report on the pursuit of the Daly River murderers', SAPP, No.170, 1885.
27 Sep 1884 SA Argument Flat NT 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Austin (1992), p 25; SA Register, 12 Feb 1886, p6 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article50184608; NTTG 4 Oct 1884, p2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3156540.
1 Oct 1884 to 31 Oct 1884 QLD Irvinebank, inland from Cairns 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Richards 2008:33; Brisbane Courier, November 14, 1884 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3436110;Genever 1996:16.
13 Nov 1884 SA Glen Helen Arrernte 7 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Nettelbeck 2004: 28-29; Wilson 2000: 273;
1 Jan 1885 to 31 Dec 1885 SA Florida Station Poisoning Yolngu 100 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Trudgen, Richard, 2000, pp 18-20; Baker, Gwenda 2018, p 8.
11 Dec 1885 to 31 Dec 1885 SA Bradshaw Poisoning Wardaman 15 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers)
1 Jul 1886 to 1 Sep 1886 WA Spear Gully' Halls Creek Jaru, Kitja 20 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Clement 2000: 6; Clement and Bridge, 1991: xiii.; Kimberley Languages Resource Centre,1996:37; WAPD, Report by Sergt Troy from R. McPhee regarding death of Fred Marriot, Derby Police Station, 3 July 1886, SROWA, AN 5, Acc.738/3; . Lamond 1971: 29-30; Owen, 2003 129-156; Owen, 2016: 225-231.
17 Nov 1886 to 11 Jan 1887 WA Ord River Station - East Kimberley Worla, Jaru, Kitja 120 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) WAPD, East Kimberley Wyndham Police Station. Ambush of John Durack and Party by natives, 17/11/86 to 12/12/86', report 11 January 1887, ‘Report from P.C. Ritchie of the wilful shooting of 'Young Jacky' and 'Monday' by 'Nipper'. J.J. Durack implicated. December 28, 1897, ‘ SROWA, AN 5/1, Cons.430, File 298/1887; The West Australian, 14 November 1892; 3 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/3042051/804064, WAPD, ‘East Kimberley, Wyndham Station, Death of John Durack by Natives, Undated Note Signed ‘Gurney’, Det, Received by the Police Dept,15 November 1892’, SROWA, AN 5/1, Cons. 430, File 2108/1892.p.3; Durack 1933:43; Owen 2003: 135-145; Owen 2016: 225-232.
17 Nov 1886 to 21 Jan 1887 SA Waterloo NT Unclear 100 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Lewis, 2018, pp 51-52; SA Register, 9 Dec 1886, p 5 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article45846815; North Australian, 10, December 1886, p 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47996152 24 December 1896, 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47996205 and 21 January 1897 p 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47996309; p 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47996318; NTTG, 11 December 1886, p 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3160525 and 25 Dec 1886, p2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3160570; Durack, 2018 (1959),pp 292-294.
1 Jan 1887 to 31 Dec 1887 QLD Normanton 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Richards 2008:34;
1 Jan 1887 to 31 Dec 1887 SA Owen Springs Arrernte 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) NTRS 3414/Part 1, Sid Stanes, Reel 22, Side 2 (Trish Lonsdale Collection); Register (SA), 26 September 1928, p 6 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article56761342; Wurmbrand police record, NT Police Historical Society https://sites.google.com/site/ntpmhsociety/home/our-rich-history/people/biographies/wurmbrand-erwein; Roberts T 'The Brutal Truth' The Monthly, November 2009,
1 Jan 1888 to 31 Dec 1889 SA Cooninghera Waterhole halfway between Birdsville and Durrie on the Diamantina River Mindiri and Wardumba 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Hercus 1977: 56; Farwell 1950: 36-40; Hercus and Sutton 1986: 183-4
1 Apr 1888 to 30 Apr 1888 WA Goose Hill - East Kimberley Kitja, Worla 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) CSO, ‘Government Resident Wyndham - Natives (5) shot by PC. Graham & others in April 88. Report,’ File Note G.B. Phillips, Commissioner of Police to Hon. Colonial Secretary, enclosing reports from Sergeant Troy and statements from PC Graham and native assistant Banjo, 2 October 1888, SROWA, AN 24, Acc.527, File 2776/1888; Sunday Times, 13 September 1908: 3 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/57585524/4330457; Owen 2016:541-2.
1 Jul 1888 to 30 Sep 1888 WA 'Goldfields Road' - Halls Creek Kitja 35 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Northern Territory Times, 18 August 1888 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3313470; Eastern Districts Chronicle, 13 October 1888:2 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/148605424/18172060; Daily News 5 September 1929: 6https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/79213432/7807983; Durack, 1936: 35-6; Angelo 1948; Clement 1989: 8; Clement and Bridge 1991: 46; Owen and Choo 2003:135-142; Owen 2016: 231-233.
1 Jan 1889 to 31 Dec 1896 SA Mirki Massacre Yolgnu 100 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Read and Read 1991: 19-24; Gaunt 1934:
1 Jan 1890 to 31 Dec 1899 WA Newry Station, Keep River, East Kimberley/ Northern Territory Mirrawong Gadjerong 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Shaw 1983: 35; Owen 2016: 335.
1 Jan 1890 to 31 Dec 1899 WA Ruby Plains -East Kimberley Kitja, Jaru 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Thomas, 1985 - https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C2148046
1 Jan 1890 to 31 Dec 1899 WA Kariyarri - Pilbara Ngarluma, Kariyarri 50 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Wilson, 1961: 61.
1 Jan 1890 to 31 Dec 1899 WA Warlupany - East Kimberley Worla, Kitja 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Ross and Bray, 1989:16. Ryan 2001: 71-75.
1 Jan 1890 to 31 Dec 1899 SA Koonchera Waterhole (Clifton Hills) Wardumba 40 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Hercus 1977: 56-62.
1 Jan 1890 to 31 Dec 1899 SA Nappamanna Station, near Pandie Pandie station Wanganuru 40 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Hercus 1977:56; Farwell 1950:38-40.
1 Jan 1890 to 31 Dec 1890 SA Mistake Creek, NT Malngin and Nyinin 60 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Austin (1992), p 17; Shaw & McDonald, 1978 p 130.
24 Jun 1891 SA Frew River Alyawarr, Wakaya, Kaytete and Warumungu 20 (Aboriginal People) 20 (Aboriginal People) NTRS 3413 – Londsale, Patricia – Records relating to research interviews with Centralians 1963-1986; Bell, D 1983, p65; Evening Journal, 6 July 1891, p2.
1 Jan 1892 to 31 Dec 1892 SA Abner Range, Malakoff Creek Garrwa 64 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Roberts 2009; O'Brien and Adams 1999: 7; NTTG, 24 April 1886 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3159378; Costello 1930: 164, 167; Northern Standard, 16 October 1931, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article48050361; 29 May 1934 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49494183 and 1 June 1934 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49494267; Bottoms 2013: 156-8.
30 Jan 1892 to 9 Dec 1896 SA Bowgan Massacre 1 - Corella Creek Wanbaya or Warlpiri 30 (Aboriginal People) 3 (Colonisers) Read and Read 1991, 26-28; GSNT Record 579; NTTG, 4 March 1892, 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3320941; NTTG, 5 Mar 1897, 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4165959; CE Gaunt 1932, 3; NTRS 2710 . Borroloola Police Letter Books . entry, June 1893; Morrison www.australianfrontierconflicts.com.au; Layton and Ucko 1999: 235; Read and Read 1991: 12-16; RAHC https://www.rahc.com.au/sites/default/files/documents/community_profiles/Minyerri%20Community%20Profile.pdf; SA Legislative Council Select Committee Inquiry into the Aborigines Bill 1899.
1 Jun 1892 to 31 Aug 1892 WA Leopold Ranges - West Kimberley Bunuba, Nyikina 7 (Aboriginal People) 2 (Colonisers) ‘‘Two men murdered and third wounded by natives on the Leopold Ranges - Police Corporal Holmes, Derby, [Thomas Henry; Robert Allen; William Amitage; Robert (?) Goodridge; Thomas Yates; Robert Henry; 'Barrier Station;' Ernest Black]’, SROWA, AN 24, Cons.527, File 939/1892; Owen, 2016: 296-297.
15 Oct 1892 to 30 Nov 1892 SA Willeroo Wardaman 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Lewis (2004) 243-244; NTTG 11 Nov 1892 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3322818.
1 Jan 1893 to 31 Dec 1893 SA Malay Bay 6 (Other) 1 (Aboriginal People) Read and Read 1991: 16-18.; Habeas Corpus 2017: Appendix A: 23; NTTG, Oct 21, 1892: 2 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/3322640/826127; NTTG, Oct 28, 1892: 3 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/3322681; NTTG, Jan 15, 1904: 3 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/4315497
1 Jul 1893 to 31 Jul 1893 WA Behn River near Rosewood station - East Kimberley Kitja, Jaru 23 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) The Daily News, 27 Sep 1893: 2, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/77380675/7823132; The Western Australian Record, 5 October 1893: 7, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/211985512/22978455; NTTG, October 20, 1893: 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3325314. Northern Territory Times, October 20, 1893:3; Lewis 2012: CSO, ‘Encounter with native offenders in East Kimberley District H. Collins killed in. Reporting, - Sub Inspector Drewry,’ Journal of a trip by Sergt Brophy and party in pursuit of natives who are killing cattle on the Ord Osmand and other rivers, Correspondence from Commissioner Phillips, J, 28 September 1893, SROWA, AN 24, 527, File 90/1894; Owen and Choo, 2003; 135-145; Owen, 2016: 347-350.
1 Oct 1893 to 24 Nov 1893 WA Ord River-East Kimberley Kitja, Jaru, Mirrawong 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) CSO, Journal of a trip by Sergt Brophy and party in pursuit of natives who are killing cattle on the Ord, Osmand and other rivers 1 October 1893–24 November 1893,’ SROWA, AN 24, Cons.527, File 90/1894. Owen and Choo, 2003; 135-145; Owen, 2016: 348-350.
19 Nov 1894 WA Geike Gorge (2), West Kimberley Bunuba, Nykina, Goonyiyandi 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Aborigines Protection Board, ‘Correspondence, Report for the Secretary of the Aboriginal Protection Board of Western Australia from Mr George Marsden on Oobagooma Cattle Station, 21 December 1896’, SROWA, AN 1, Cons. 495, Item 44; WAPD, ‘Capture of Wild Natives in the Oscar and Barrier Ranges’, 26 January 1895, SROWA, Cons.430, File 3548/1897. See telegram from Inspector Lawrence to Commissioner of Police, 5 January 1895; The West Australian, Tuesday 8 January 1895: 2 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/3071337; Western Mail, 12 January 1895: 3 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/33111918; Clement and Bridge 1998: 47-79; McGregor 1985: 100-122; Pederson 1995; 132-142; Owen 2016:315-330.
13 Dec 1894 to 6 Jan 1895 WA Geike Gorge (1- West Kimberley Bunuba 7 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) WAPD, ‘Capture of Wild Natives in the Oscar and Barrier Ranges’, 26 January 1895, SROWA, Cons.430, File 3548/1897. See telegram from Inspector Lawrence to Commissioner of Police, 5 January 1895; West Australian, 8 January 1895: 2, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/3071337/810682; Western Mail, 12 January 1895:13 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article33111918; Owen, 2016: 315-316.
1 Jun 1895 to 30 Jun 1895 WA Margaret River Killings, Leopold Ranges Goonyiyandi, Bunuba 9 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) ‘The Northern Native Outrage. Police Warfare,’ The Inquirer and Commercial News, 4 January 1895, p.15. https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/66263412/6587316; WAPD, ‘Wholesale killing of cattle on Margaret River,’ 23 July 1895, SROWA, Cons.430, File 1808/1895; Shaw 1981: 47.
14 Jul 1895 to 1 Feb 1896 SA Gordon Creek Bilignara and Wardaman 60 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Austin, 1992: 17; Read & Read, 1977: 55-62; NTTG 14 Jun 1895, p 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3329713; NTTG 28 Jun 1895, p3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3329815; NTTG 13 Mar 1896, p 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3331518; Lewis, 2018: 468-469; Sutton,2019, https://www.news.com.au/news/grisly-secret-of-cattlemen-who-kept-40-pairs-of-ears-as-trophies-in-outback-horror-house/news-story/17022ba7691314b4cff5aadbf8511936
1 Nov 1895 to 30 Nov 1895 SA Little Gregory Wardaman 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Lewis 2004: 247-248.
11 Nov 1895 WA Ivanhoe Station (1) East Kimberley Kitja, Mirrawong 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) ‘Private diary of Sergeant Thomas Wheatley during police patrols from Wyndham from 6 November to 23 December 1895’, [Wheatley Manuscript], 11 November 1895, Battye Library, Cons.1266A, Manuscript; Owen, 2016:363.
27 Dec 1895 WA Ivanhoe Station (2) East Kimberley Mirrawong Gadgerong 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) CSO, ‘Telegram from Sub Inspector Orme to Commissioner of Police GB Phillips’, Wyndham Station, 15 December 1895, SROWA, AN 24, Cons.527, File 823/1895. See also Telegram dated 27 December 1895. Const. Inglis and party ‘dispersed several tribes on Lissadell and Ord River Stations’, CSO, AN 24, Cons.527, File 823/1895. Owen, 2003: 360-364.
1 Jan 1896 to 31 Dec 1896 WA Linnekar Gorge [Turner Station] Kitja, Jaru 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Ross and Bray 1989:19.
14 Aug 1896 WA Fitzroy River Valley Killings, West Kimberley Bunuba, Nyikina, Unggarangi 9 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Native Troubles on the Fitzroy,' West Australian, Friday 21 August 1896: 2 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3098102. WAPD, Telegram to Commissioner of Police from Sub Inspector Ord. 7 August 1896, SROWA, Cons.430, File 2301/96; McGregor, 1985:103-122; McGregor, 1993: 63-82; Muecke, et. al. 1985:81-100; Owen, 2016: 326-330.
22 Sep 1896 to 30 Jan 1897 WA Rosewood and Lissadell massacres, Ord River- East Kimberley Kitja, Worla, Jaru, Mirrawong 50 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) WAPD, ‘Copy of PC Rhatigan’s Journal for September 1896’, Argyle Camp, 15 September 1896, SROWA, Cons.430, File 3689/1896; WAPD, Copy of PC Freeman’s Journal from Wyndham to Argyle Police camp, 24 October 1896, SROWA, Cons.430, File 3688/1896; WAPD, Copy of PC Rhatigan’s Journal whilst travelling from Argyle camp to Wyndham from the 5 October to the 22 October 1896’, 5 October 1896, SROWA, Cons.430, File 3690/1896; WAPD, PC Freeman’s Journal whilst on Patrol on Ord River and Lissadell Runs’, 25 December 1896, SROWA, Cons.430, File 1344/1897; WAPD, ‘PC Freeman’s Journal whilst on Patrol on Ord River and Lissadell Runs’, 6 January 1897, SROWA, Cons.430, File 1344/1897; WAPD, ‘Journal of P.C. Rhatigan patrolling the Argyle, Lissadell and Ord River Stations - January 17 to 22, 1897’, Argyle Police Camp, 15 January 1897, SROWA, Cons.430, File 1345/1897.
1 May 1899 to 13 Jun 1899 WA Chinese Garden - West Kimberley Yiiji, Ngarinyin 9 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) CSO, ‘Clerk of Court, Wyndham – Murder of Ah Sing by Blacks – Reporting Supposed’, SROWA, Cons. 527, File 2773/1898; WAPD, ‘Police Constable Farley (305) and Others Report of the Murder of Aboriginal Assistant, Dicky, Speared by Hostile Natives at Durack River While Trying to Apprehend Murderers of Ah Sing’, East Kimberley District, Wyndham Station, July 1899, SROWA, AN 5/1, Cons. 430, File 2873/1899; Owen 2016: 371; Green 1995: 94-95; ‘News from Wyndham. Native Depredations’, The Inquirer and Commercial News, 28 September 1894: 8 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/66250855/6586787.
1 Jan 1900 to 31 Dec 1900 WA Jail House Creek - East Kimberley Worla, Kitja 50 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Ross and Bray, 1989:18.
20 Jul 1900 NSW Breelong, near Gilgandra 8 (Colonisers) 0 (Aboriginal People) Nepean Times, July 28, 1900 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article101351156; Durane & Gloucester Advertiser, July 31, 1900; Muswellbrook Chronicle, Oct 6, 1900 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107010252; SMH, July 23, 1900:7 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14325848; 28:12 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14327294 Nov 24, 1900 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14377033; Singleton Argus, Jan 19, 1901 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article78908493;Evening News (Sydney 1869-1931), July 27, 1900:3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112586798; August 7, 1900:5 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112584490; August 22, 1900:4 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112584861; August 31, 1900:8 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112590518; September 1, 1900:6 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112587452.
1 Jan 1901 to 31 Dec 1902 SA Hodgson Downs Station, Bailey Creek, Minyerri Maijarayi and Alawa 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Morrison www.australianfrontierconflicts.com.au; Layton and Ucko 1999: 235; Read and Read 1991: 12-16; RAHC https://www.rahc.com.au/sites/default/files/documents/community_profiles/Minyerri%20Community%20Profile.pdf; Merlan 1978 p87.
1 Jan 1902 to 31 Dec 1902 QLD Ducie River, Cape York 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Richards 2008:35;
1 Jan 1903 to 31 Dec 1904 SA Winiki Pocket 8 (Colonisers) 0 (Aboriginal People) Morrison www.australianfrontierconflicts.com.au; Layton and Ucko 1999: 235; Read and Read 1991: 12-16; RAHC https://www.rahc.com.au/sites/default/files/documents/community_profiles/Minyerri%20Community%20Profile.pdf
1 Jan 1908 to 31 Dec 1908 WA Texas Downs - East Kimberley Worla, Kitja, Jaru 9 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Clement 1989: 21-22; Shaw, 1986: 98-101; Shaw, 1998: passim; Ross and Bray, 1989:.20.
1 Jan 1911 to 31 Dec 1911 NT Gan Gan Massacre #1 Yolgnu – Dhalwangu and Gumatj people 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Yunupingu, G July 2016; Yunupingu, B 1981; NAA, Uncommon Lives, Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda; Warren Snowdon MHR, 2016; Gumana, B biography (https://www.aboriginal-bark-paintings.com/birrikidji-gumana/); Rothwell, N 2007, Yunupingu G 2017, p54-55.
6 Jan 1912 to 11 Apr 1913 WA Canning Stock Route - Well No.4 Martu 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) The Daily News, 21 May 1912:8 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/79898128/7816557; Clement & Bridge 1991; 130-151.
1 May 1915 to 30 Jun 1915 WA Mistake Creek - East Kimberley Kitja, Worla 7 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) WAPD, Aboriginal Native Tracker 'Nipper'. From C.of P. SROWA, Cons.430, Item 1854/1915. Clement 1989: 17-18; Ross and Bray 1989: 73-5; Western Mail, 2 April 1915:18 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article44758490; The Advertiser, 2 April 1915: 8 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/5455967/970938 WAPD, ‘Aboriginal Native  Tracker  'Nipper'. From C. of P.’ SROWA,  AN 5/2, Ace 430, File 1854/1915; Smith, Mistake Creek Massacre Site, Flinders University, http://www.flinders.edu.au/ehl/archaeology/research-profile/current-themes-and-projects/environment-and-society/kimberley-frontier-archaeology-project.cfm; Clement 2003: 199-214, Owen, 2016: 438.
1 Sep 1916 to 30 Sep 1916 WA Mowla Bluff - West Kimberley Nyikina 6 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) 'Alleged shooting of Natives at Gee Gully...'Cons. 430, File 1919/1812; Marshall, 1988:226; 'Whispering in our Hearts': The Mowla Bluff Massacre, Ronin Films, Mitch Torres, 2002. [Film] Watson, 2012; 51-60; Owen, 2016; 439-440.
1 Jan 1917 to 31 Dec 1917 NT Tennant Creek Warlpiri/Warumungu 50 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Read and Read 1991: 5-7; Headon 1986, 35-36.
1 Jan 1918 to 31 Dec 1918 QLD Bentinck Island, Gulf of Carpentaria Kaiadilt 11 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Bottoms 2013:169; Kelly and Evans, 1985:44-5.
23 Mar 1918 to 2 Apr 1918 NT Auvergne Massacre Gurindji 7 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Timber Creek Police Station Copy Book, 10 April 1918; Timber Creek Police Station Register of Reported Deaths, 1895-1944; NTTG 20 April 1918: 24 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3288859; 11 May 1918: 15 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3289247; Riverine Herald, 24 June 1918: 3 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article90178007; Morrison www.australianfrontierconflicts.com.au
1 Jan 1920 to 31 Dec 1922 NT Wave Hill Station Warlpiri & Gurindji 30 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Read and Japaljarri, 1978, 147. Lewis, 2018, 527, 538.
1 Jan 1921 to 30 Nov 1921 WA Bedford Downs (1) - East Kimberley Kitja, Worla 10 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Green, 1995: 75. Owen, 2016: 439
1 Oct 1922 to 31 Oct 1922 WA Sturt Creek - East Kimberley Tjurabalan, Walmajari, Jaru 12 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Smith, 2000, 62-74, http://theconversation.com/oral-testimony-of-an-aboriginal-massacre-now-supported-by-scientific-evidence-85526; .Shaw, 1981; 47.
1 Jan 1924 to 31 Dec 1924 WA Bedford Downs (2) - East Kimberley Kitja, Worla 20 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Ross and Bray, 1989: 56-59; Clement,1989: 4; Ryan 2001: 63, 65–8; Kimberley Language Resource Centre, 1996: 101–9; Owen 2016: 439-440.
20 Jun 1926 to 31 Jul 1926 WA Forrest River [Oombulgurri] - East Kimberley Yiiji 11 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Wood 1927; Daily News, 8 July 1926; Sunday Times, 13 March 1927:18 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/58325091/4346136; The Advertiser, 16 July 1928:13 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/49398848/2483931; Sydney Morning Herald, 8 March 1927: 11 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/16359964/1209517; Brisbane Courier, 9 March 1927:15 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/21121887/1643178; Shaw 1981:157-163; Green 1995; Auty, 2004: 122-155.Owen, 2016:439-444.
1 Aug 1928 to 31 Oct 1928 NT Coniston and surrounds 1 Warlpiri, Anmatyere, Kaytetye 50 (Aboriginal People) 1 (Colonisers) Woodward 1978; Read and Read 1991: 33-7; Bell 1993: 67-68; Toohey 1978; Edmond 2013: 104; Morrison www.australianfrontierconflicts.com.au; Alice Springs News Online August 15 2018 https://www.alicespringsnews.com.au/2018/08/15/the-coniston-massacre-remembered; NT News, 25 Aug 2018: 24-25https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-08-24/nt-police-apologise-for-state-sanctioned-coniston-massacre/10162850; Wilson and O'Brien 2003.
1 Aug 1928 to 31 Oct 1928 NT Coniston and surrounds 2 Warlpiri, Anmatyere, Kaytetye 60 (Aboriginal People) 0 (Colonisers) Woodward 1978; Read and Read 1991: 33-7; Bell 1993: 67-68; Toohey 1978: Edmond 2013: 104; Morrison www.australianfrontierconflicts.com.au; Alice Springs News Online August 15 2018 https://www.alicespringsnews.com.au/2018/08/15/the-coniston-massacre-remembered; NT News, 25 Aug 2018: 24-25 https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-08-24/nt-police-apologise-for-state-sanctioned-coniston-massacre/10162850; Wilson and O'Brien 2003.